Selected MARID-Related Terms and Acronyms
Compiled by Weldon Whipple <email@example.com>.
- 2821 Verification
- Verification of e-mail sender based on envelope information
in the SMTP conversation. (RFC 2821 describes the Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol [SMTP]; the addresses specified with the SMTP commands MAIL
FROM and RCPT TO are the envelope sender and recipient respectively.)
This sender verification method is favored by the original SPF, and by RMX and LMAP.
- 2822 Verification
- Verification of e-mail sender based on e-mail header
information. (RFC 2822 describes the format of e-mail messages; the
text of e-mail messages begins with headers.) This sender
verification method is favored by Microsoft's Caller-ID.
- Anti-Bogus Bounce System (Qmail)
- Anti-Spam Research Group. The ASRG is an Internet Research Task
- The Anti-Spam Technical Alliance. Participants include Yahoo!
Microsoft, EarthLink and America Online.
- Bounce Address Tag Validation. Dave Crocker's proposal
to add signature information to the "RFC2821.MailFrom address
- Border Gateway Protocol. "BGP is used to exchange routing
information for the Internet and is the protocol used between Internet
- Black-hat Hacker
- Someone who hacks with malicious intent.
- Black-hat MTA
- A list of domains, hosts, IP addresses and/or e-mail addresses
from which e-mail is blocked.
- Microsoft's proposal for sender verification. See SenderID.
- CallBack Verification. "The receiving mail server connects back to the mail server of the sender of an email to verify
their address exists, before accepting the email from them." --Chris
- Before accepting mail from a sender for the first time, challenge
the sender by sending an e-mail and requiring the she respond. Until a
response is received, e-mail from that sender is rejected.
- Certified Server Validation (formerly Client SMTP Validation, in which an SMTP server using CSV
validates the client by checking the client's IP address, the domain
name supplied with the SMTP HELO/EHLO, a DNS SRV
- Distributed Denial of Service (attack)
- Designated Sender
- A generic term used to describe systems like SPF, DMP and
Caller-ID, where the domain owner designates who can send
email using their domain name. --Wayne
- See DomainKeys.
- See DomainKeys Identified Mail.
- Designated Mailers Protocol. "A proposal for identifying computer
systems authorized to act as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
clients for an e-mail domain."
- Domain Name
- Domain Name Service
- DNS Blacklist; DNS Blocklist. Blacklists that are implemented
using the Domain Name System.
- A mechanism that lets email providers verify the domain of each
e-mail sender, as well as the integrity of the messages sent (i.e.,
that they were not altered during transit), through the use of
public/private keys. See http://antispam.yahoo.com/domainkeys.
- Domain of Responsibility
- Denial of Service (attack)
- Designated Relays Inquiry Protocol
- Delivery Status Notification
- "Refers to an anti-spam program, not 'distributed spamming.'"
- Designated Sender Scheme. Examples: RMX, DMP, SPF, and CallerID.
- Extended HELO. The command given by the initiator of an ESMTP conversation at the beginning of the
conversation. See also HELO.
- EHLO Domain Name
- The domain (host) name given as the argument to the EHLO command at the beginning of an SMTP conversation.
- Extended Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
- A scheme that requires incoming e-mail to "knock twice."
Typically, as incoming e-mail arrives, the server checks to see if the
sender has successfully sent mail to the recipient in the recent
past. If so, the mail is accepted. If not, the server returns a
temporary failure and records the delivery attempt. If the sender
retries the delivery later, the server accepts the mail and records
the successful delivery.
- The command given to initiate an SMTP conversation. See
also the more recent EHLO.
- Host Name Authentication
- Internet Engineering Task Force
- Internet Research Task Force
- Joe Job
- Used to describe what happens when a spammer chooses the e-mail
address of an unsuspecting user on the Internet as the (spoofed)
sender of an e-mail to a list of non-existent recipients. Then the
receiving mail servers detect that the recipient user doesn't have a
mailbox there, they all send bounce messages to the e-mail address of
the spoofed sender. The spoofed sender has been "Joe Jobbed."
- Lightweight MTA Authentication Protocol
- MTA Authorization Records in DNS. SPF is arguably the most
significant example of MARID. The IETF MARID working group was
announced on April 8, 2004.
- Mail Delivery Agent. Procmail and mail.local are examples of local MDAs.
(Note: Some MTAs also include the MDA functionality to deliver email to the final mail box.).
- Multipart Internet Mail Extensions
- Mail Submission Agent. A program (possibly an MTA) that accepts e-mail from an MUA.
- Mail Transfer Agent. Sendmail, Procmail, Qmail and Exim are examples of MTAs.
- Marking Mail Transfer Agents in Reverse DNS with TXT RRs. "Marking
of hosts in reverse DNS (in-addr.arpa zone) to allow the receiving
mail transfer agents to decide whether the connecting (sending) host
is a designated mail transfer agent (MTA) or not."
- Mail User Agent. A program that displays received messages and
composes and sends new messages. Outlook Express, Pine and Mutt are
examples of MUAs
- Mail Exchanger, Mail Exchange. Also a type of DNS Resource Record
(RR) that identifies the host(s) that receive e-mail for a
- Non-Existent Domain. "This means the domain could exist but
doesn't (yet). It could be registered already, but it doesn't exist.
Likely it isn't even registered. So how could it then exist?"
--Source: http://www.nxdomain.net home
- Originating MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). The MTA
that sends an e-mail message.
- Internet scam where official-looking e-mail uses imbedded links or
other means to trick consumers into divulging account numbers, Social
Security numbers, user names and passwords, and other private or
- Purported Responsible Address. The Internet address from which an
e-mail message purports to originate, extracted from e-mail
headers. [Note: This is 2822
Verification.] The address specified in the "From:" header, unless
a "Sender:" header is present. A "Resent-From:" overrides both Sender:
and From:. See http://www.openspf.org/unified/7-pra.txt
- Purported Responsible Domain. The domain portion of the e-mail
address from which an e-mail message purports to originate.
- RAND License
- Reasonable And Non-Discriminatory license
- Proposed SMTP service extension that
adds a SUBMITTER parameter to the SMTP EHLO
and MAIL commands.
- See (the more recent) SUBMITTER.
- Recipient/Receiving MTA (Mail Transfer
Agent). The MTA that receives an e-mail message.
- Reverse MX. A proposed DNS
resource record (RR) that enumerates hosts/addresses from which e-mail
purportedly from a domain can originate.
- Resource Record (in DNS)
- New name (June 2004) for Caller-ID. Some
sources (incorrectly?) state that SenderID is the name for the
- Signed Envelope Sender
- Session Initiation Protocol. Proposal to combat unsolicited
"multimedia communications between users, including voice, video,
instant messaging and presence."
- Secure MIME.
- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. Documented in RFC 2821.
- Sender Policy Framework. (Formerly: Sender Permitted From) (See http://www.openspf.org, also Sender
Policy Framework (SPF) for Authorizing Use of Domains in E-MAIL,
version 1 (draft-schlitt-spf-classic-01).) In 2004, Microsoft
attempted to merge SPF with its SenderID. Microsoft's efforts to patent the
combined methodology as its own work (and require users of the
technology to obtain licenses from Microsoft) caused dissatisfaction
among most of the original SPF proponents, and the effort has
apparently failed. Development of "Classic SPF" continues without
Microsoft or SenderID.
- Falsifying the identity of the sender of an e-mail message.
- Sender Rewriting Scheme
- An experimental DNS Resource Record (RR)
introduced in RFC 2052 as a general mechanism for locating
- Selective Sender. A proposal similar to MTAmark. John
Levine created this along with FSV.
- Sender Signing Policy. The strategy or procedure an e-mail sender
has established for attaching DomainKeys signatures to outgoing
mail. When an e-mail recipient that verifies DKIM
signatures receives mail without a signature, it must determine that
policy--"whether messages from a particular sender are expected to be
signed, and what signatures are acceptable."
- A proposed extension to the SMTP EHLO and MAIL commands described
by the Responsible Submitter SMTP
service extension proposal. It is used when e-mail is sent through a
Example SMTP MAIL command using SUBMITTER:
MAIL FROM:<firstname.lastname@example.org> SIZE=1000 SUBMITTER=<email@example.com>
The SUBMITTER value is used to route bounce messages that result
from forwarded mail. (SUBMITTER is a replacement for SRS and SES.)
- A mail transfer (MTA) which--as soon as it
identifies an incoming e-mail as SPAM (or from a spammer)--purposely
responds very slowly.
- Unsolicited Bulk E-mail; Unsolicited Business-oriented
E-mail (Synonyms: SPAM, UBE)
- Unsolicited Commercial E-mail. (Synonyms: SPAM, UBE)
- User Datagram Protocol
- Variable Envelope Return Paths
- Verifying MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). An MTA
that implements CBV (CallBack
- White-hat MTA
- (Possibly?) A Mail transfer Agent that is anti-SPAM
- A list of domains, hosts, IP addresses and/or e-mail addresses
from which e-mail is unconditionally accepted.